Pancytopenia is a medical abnormality related to the blood, wherein the number of blood components, i.e., red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood corpuscles (WBC), and platelets decline below normal limits. The condition could be life-threatening, if not treated. The condition is characterized by fever, chills, fatigue, weakness, breathlessness, lymph nodes swelling, and splenomegaly.
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The disease is classified into two types: idiopathic and secondary. The mechanism of idiopathic type is the inapprociate activation of T-cells due to autoimmune response, which leads to rapid hemophagocytic activity. The essential blood components, such as, RBC, WBC, and platelets are engulfed and destroyed at a rapid pace through the over-phagocytosis process. Pancytopenia further leads to a disease, called hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Major causes of pancytopenia include bone marrow suppression, heavy and long-term administration of drugs, such as antibiotics (e.g. chloramphenicol, linezolid), BP regulators, chemotherapeutic agents, other viral diseases such as HIV and hepatitis, and blood cancer. Diagnostic tests include complete blood count (CBC) and immunoassay. Treatments include immunosuppressant (cytophosphamide) and bone-marrow stimulators (epoetin alfa).
In some mild cases of pancytopenia, treatment may not necessary. In moderate cases, transfusion of blood may restore blood cell counts; however, over a period of time, blood transfusions may become less effective. In severe cases of pancytopenia, stem cell therapy and bone marrow transplant technique may be used to restore the ability of bone marrow to develop blood cells. Normally, these techniques are quite effective in younger patients; however, older patients may also require this technique along with a combination of immunosuppressant drugs, which stimulate the bone marrow.
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The global pancytopenia market is anticipated to expand in the near future, owing to major drivers such as increased incidence rate of chronic diseases, rise in number of therapeutic products that suppress bone marrow activity and increased R&D practices and rise in awareness among the global population about blood-related disorders. According to estimates of Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS), around 150,000 people in the U.S. are estimated to have been diagnosed with blood cancer, in 2013. Thus, high proportion of blood cancer patients is expected to boost the pancytopenia diagnostics and treatment market. However, high cost and long-term duration of therapy, side-effects associated with some treatment regime, and lack of reimbursement policies in developing countries are major restraints of the global pancytopenia market.
The global pancytopenia market can be segmented based on diagnostic test, treatment, and end-user. Based on diagnostic test, the global pancytopenia market can be classified as complete blood count (CBC), immunoassay, and others. In terms of treatment, the global pancytopenia market can be segregated as immunosuppressant (cytophosphamide), bone-marrow stimulators (epoetin alfa), and others. Based on end-user, the global pancytopenia market can be segregated into hospitals, diagnostic centers, academic & research institutes, and others. By end users, Hospitals and diagnostic centers are anticipated to dominate the market in comeing years due to increase in number of hopistals and adopation of new technquies.